Over several decades, our understanding of the pathogenesis of neoplasia has been advanced tremendously. Many oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been identified and characterized, and it is usually accepted that cancer is a genetic disease. Nevertheless, it is beginning to be appreciated that the interrelationships between the tumor epithelium and the tissue microenvironment play a critical role in tumorigenesis. It has been demonstrated the ability of the tissue microenvironment to control malignancy and the mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression and regression.

Modern medicine now tends to use the active ingredients of plants rather than the whole plants. The phytochemicals may be synthesized, compounded or otherwise transformed to make pharmaceuticals. Examples of such derivatives include digoxin, from digitalis; capsaicine, from chili; and aspirin, which is chemically related to the salicylic acid found in white willow. The opium poppy continues to be a major industrial source of opiates, including morphine. Few traditional remedies, however, have translated into modern drugs, although there is continuing research into the efficacy and possible adaptation of traditional herbal treatments.
The reason that patients using alternative treatments die sooner may be because patients who accurately perceive that they are likely to survive do not attempt unproven remedies, and patients who accurately perceive that they are unlikely to survive are attracted to unproven remedies.[17] Among patients who believe their condition to be untreatable by evidence-based medicine, "desperation drives them into the hands of anyone with a promise and a smile."[19] Con artists have long exploited patients' perceived lack of options to extract payments for ineffectual and even harmful treatments.[19]

Teas are a great way to get the benefits of sage all you need to do is steep one teaspoon of sage in a cup of water for about 10 minutes. You can also make a pretty awesome sore throat reliever by combining sage and thyme. Take an ounce of both grind them, and cover them with 16 ounces of apple cider vinegar. Be sure to shake it periodically and let it sit for ten days before using.